ANDROID: The Revolutionary Operating Environment For Mobile System

Now android is widely used Operating system Environment for the mobile users recorded over 1 billion active users using the environment. It is the fastest growing platform than any other platform.

QUESTION ARISES WHAT MAKES IT SO WIDELY USED ENVIRONMENT ?

Android Environment is based on Linux operating system Kernel as if you have a little knowledge about operating system you must have know Linux is the most secure and robust operating system widely used where performance and security is needed. Android uses Linux kernel environment as there base for the android environment.

Android OS is developed by Google Inc. and initially launched by Google on 23rd September 2008. Android operating system is mostly written in programming languages like c, c++ and java(UI). Under Apache license 2.0 and GNU GLP V2.

Android was unveiled in 2007 when the stone for Open Handset Alliance (‚Äča consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.) laid down.

Android is available at nearly free of cost for the mobile hardware provides they can customize it according to their needs as android is an open source operating environment.

The Open Source Feature / Nature of Android Environment allow a large number of mobile Application development communities to develop and encourage developers to develop application for android environment and add new features to the OS for users.

ANDROID TIMELINE:

In October 2003 Andy Rubin,Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White laid down the stone for Android inc in palo alto, California. Company was laid down with the objective of making devices smarter for the user they can know the locations and preferences of the user and adjust accordingly. The aim of the company at that time was to develop an operating system with advance features to make smart digital cameras when they notice that the market is not big enough they decided to move their efforts towards development of OS for mobile phones.

On 17th august 2005 Google acquired android inc, Google marketed the platform to mobile Makers and providers and promised them to provide flexible and upgradable system.

A prototype name “snooner” was launched in December 2006. The prototype is closely resembled to Blackberry phone the prototype is without touch screen with a qwerty keyboard. Later the phone is transformed and touch screen was implemented.

On 5th November 2007 open handset alliance was came into existence when all the major companies decided to develop open standard for mobile phone manufacturing.

At that day Google reviles its new operating system for mobile phones build on Linux kernel 2.6.25.

HTC Dream was the first commercial phone with android operating system was launched on 22nd October 2008

In year 2010 Google comes up with the all new nexus series that run on the android platform with the hardware manufacturer HTC and launched nexus one

And many devices after that now the nexus 5 (Phone with LG) and nexus 7 (tablet with Asus) are in the market with the current operating system and hardware configuration.

android

TIME LINE: VERSIONS

 

Version Released on features
Android 1.0 (API level 1 ) September 23, 2008 Android Market, Camera support, Gmail ,Google Contacts, Google Maps, Google Search, Google Talk, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support
Android 1.1 (API level 2) February 9, 2009
  • Details and reviews available when a user searches for businesses on Maps
  • Longer in-call screen timeout default when using the speakerphone, plus ability to show/hide dialpad
  • Ability to save attachments in messages
Android 1.5 Cupcake (API level 3)[ April 30, 2009
  • Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction and user dictionary for custom words
  • Support for Widgets
  • Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats
  • Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth (A2DP and AVRCP profiles)
  • pecific date/time stamp shown for events in call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from call log even
  • New stock boot animation
  • Auto-rotation option
Android 1.6 Donut (API level 4) September 15, 2009
  • Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts, and the web
  • Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a string of text
  • Gallery, camera and camcorder more fully integrated, with faster camera access
  • Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine
  • Support for WVGA screen resolutions
  • Expanded Gesture framework and new GestureBuilder development tool
Android 2.0 Eclair (API level 5) October 26, 2009
  • Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of email and contacts
  • Bluetooth 2.1 support
  • Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, SMS, or email the person
  • Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus
  • Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI
  • MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events
Android 2.0.1 Eclair (API level 6) December 3, 2009
  • Minor API changes, bug fixes and framework behavioral changes
Android 2.1 Eclair (API level 7) January 12, 2010
  • Minor amendments to the API and bug fixes
Android 2.2–2.2.3 Froyo (API level 8) May 20, 2010
  • Speed, memory, and performance optimizations
  • additional application speed improvements, implemented through JIT compilation
  • USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality
  • Option to disable data access over mobile network
  • Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries.
  • Support for Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks
  • Support for high-PPI displays (up to 320 ppi), such as 4" 720p screens
  • Gallery allows users to view picture stacks using a zoom gesture
Android 2.3–2.3.2 Gingerbread(API level 9) December 6, 2010
  • Native support for SIP VoIP internet telephony
  • Faster, more intuitive text input in virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better suggested text and voice input mode
  • Support for Near Field Communication (NFC), allowing the user to read an NFC tag embedded in a poster, sticker, or advertisement
  • New audio effects such as reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass boost
  • Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers
  • native support for more sensors (such as gyroscopes and barometers)
Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread (API level 10) February 9, 2011
  • Several improvements and API fixes
Android 2.3.4 Gingerbread (API level 10) April 28, 2011
  • Support for voice or video chat using Google Talk
  • Switched the default encryption for SSL from AES256-SHA to RC4-MD5
Android 2.3.5 Gingerbread (API level 10) July 25, 2011
  • Improved network performance for the Nexus S 4G, among other fixes and improvements
  • Fixed Bluetooth bug on Samsung Galaxy S
  • Camera software enhancements
  • Improved battery efficiency
Android 2.3.6 Gingerbread (API level 10) September 2, 2011
  • Fixed a voice search bug
Android 2.3.7 Gingerbread (API level 10) September 21, 2011
  • Google Wallet support for the Nexus S 4G
Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API level 11)

 

 

February 22, 2011
  • Optimized tablet support with a new “holographic” user interface
  • Simplified multitasking – tapping Recent Applications in the System Bar allows users to see snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one application to another
  • Support for multi-core processors
  • Ability to encrypt all user data
  • HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication(SNI)
  • Filesystem in User space (FUSE; kernel module)
  • Ability to view albums and other collections in full-screen mode in Gallery, with easy access to thumbnails for other photos
Android 3.1 Honeycomb (API level 12) May 10, 2011
  • UI refinements
  • Connectivity for USB accessories (USB On-The-Go).
  • Expanded Recent Applications list
  • Support for external keyboards and pointing devices
  • Support for joysticks and game pads
  • Support for HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fi access point
Android 3.2 Honeycomb (API level 13) July 15, 2011
  • Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets
  • Increased ability of applications to access files on the SD card, e.g. for synchronization
  • Compatibility display mode for applications that have not been optimized for tablet screen resolutions
  • Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G
  • Pay as You Go" support for 3G and 4G tablets
  • fixed data connectivity issues when coming out of airplane mode on the US 4G Motorola Xoom
Android 4.0–4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 14 )

 

 

October 19, 2011
  • Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style
  • Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar
  • Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded
  • New gallery layout, organized by location and person
  • Android VPN Framework (AVF), and TUN (but not TAP) kernel module. Prior to 4.0, VPN software required rooted Android.
Android 4.0.3–4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 15) December 16, 2011
  • Numerous bug fixes and optimizations
  • Improvements to graphics, databases, spell-checking and Bluetooth functionality
  • Calendar provider enhancements
  • New camera applications enhancing video stabilization and QVGA resolution
  • Smoother screen rotation
  • Better camera performance
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean(API level 16) July 9, 2012 Smoother user interface:

 

  • Enhanced accessibility
  • Bi-directional text and other language support
  • User-installable keyboard maps
  • Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens
  • Fixed a bug on the Nexus 7 regarding the inability to change screen orientation in any application
  • ock/home screen rotation support for the Nexus 7
  • ne-finger gestures to expand/collapse notifications
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean(API level 17)

 

 

November 13, 2012 Lock screen improvements, including widget support and the ability to swipe directly to camera

 

  • Support for wireless display (Miracast)
  • Accessibility improvements: triple-tap to magnify the entire screen, pan and zoom with two fingers. Speech output and Gesture Mode navigation for blind users

Premium SMS confirmation

Fixed Bluetooth audio streaming bugs

  • New download notifications, which now shows the percentage and estimated time remaining for active application downloads
  • USB debug whitelist
Android 4.3 Jelly Bean(API level 18)

 

 

July 24, 2013 Bluetooth low energy support

 

  • Bluetooth Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP) 1.3 support
  • OpenGL ES 3.0 support, allowing for improved game graphics

Restricted access mode for new user profiles

  • Developer logging and analyzing enhancements

    • Background Wi-Fi location still runs even when Wi-Fi is turned off
  • Added support for five more languages
  • Clock in the status bar disappears if clock is selected as lockscreen widget

Bug fixes and small tweaks for the Nexus 7 LTE

Android 4.4 KitKat (API level 19) October 31, 2013
  • Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue
  • Clock no longer shows bold hours, all digits are thin. The H, M, and S markings for the stopwatch and timer have been removed, leaving just the numbers.

Ability for applications to use "immersive mode" to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction

NFC host card emulation, enabling a device to replace smart cards

Expanded functionality for notification listener services

Audio tunneling, audio monitoring and loudness enhancer

  • Native infrared blaster API
  • Expanded accessibility APIs and system-level closed captioning settings

 

 

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