What is Android?
ANDROID is a complete set of software for mobile devices such as tablet computers, notebooks, smartphones, electronic book readers, set-top boxes etc.Starting from black and white phones to recent smart phones or mini computers, mobile OS has come far away. Especially for smart phones, Mobile OS has greatly evolved from Palm OS in 1996 to Windows pocket PC in 2000 then to Blackberry OS and Android.
One of the most widely used mobile OS these days is ANDROID. Android does a software bunch comprise not only operating system but also middleware and key applications. Android Inc was founded in Palo Alto of California, U.S. by Andy Rubin, Rich miner, Nick sears and Chris White in 2003. Later Android Inc. was acquired by Google in 2005. After original release there have been number of updates in the original version of Android.
Version and API of Android
The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of the Android beta in November 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008. Android is under ongoing development by Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), and has seen a number of updates to its base operating system since its initial release.
Since April 2009, Android versions have been developed under a confectionery-themed code name and released in alphabetical order:
o Android 1.0 (API level 1)
o Android 1.1 (API level 2) in Feb 2009
o Android 1.5 Cupcake (API level 3) in April 2009
o Android 1.6 Donut (API level 4) in Sep 2009
o Android 2.0 Éclair (API level 5) in Oct 2009
o Android 2.0.1 Éclair (API level 6)
o Android 2.1 Éclair (API level 7)
o Android 2.2–2.2.3 Froyo (API level 8) in May 2010
o Android 2.3–2.3.2 Gingerbread (API level 9) in Dec 2010
o Android 2.3.3–2.3.7 Gingerbread (API level 10)
o Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API level 11) in May 2011
o Android 3.1 Honeycomb (API level 12)
o Android 3.2 Honeycomb (API level 13)
o Android 4.0–4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich(API level 14)Nov 2012
o Android 4.0.3–4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 15)
o Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API level 16) Dec 2013
o Android 4.2 Jelly Bean (API level 17)
o Android 4.3 Jelly Bean (API level 18)
o Android 4.4 KitKat (API level 19)
API Levels generally mean that as a programmer, you can communicate with the devices' built in functions and functionality. As the API level increases, functionality adds up (although some of it can get deprecated)
On 3 September 2013, Google announced that 1 billion activated devices now use the Android OS worldwide. The most recent major Android update was KitKat 4.4, which was released to commercial devices on 22 November 2013, via an OTA.
Features & Specifications
Android is a powerful Operating System supporting a large number of applications in Smart Phones. These applications make life more comfortable and advanced for the users. Hardwares that support Android are mainly based on ARM architecture platform. Some of the current features and specifications of android are:
(1) Application Framework.
(2) Dalvik virtual Machine.
(3) Integrated Browser.
(4) Optimized Graphics
(6) Media Support
(8) GSM Technology.
(9) Bluetooth,3G Wi-Fi
(10) Camera GPS,Compass
(11) Multiple language support
Android comes with an Android market which is an online software store. It was developed by Google. It allows Android users to select, and download applications developed by third party developers and use them. There are around 2.0 lack+ games, application and widgets available on the market for users.
Android applications are written in mainly java language and it’s also Support C programming. Android is available as open source for developers to develop applications which can be further used for selling in android market.
Supported Operating Systems
- Windows XP (32-bit), Vista (32- or 64-bit), or Windows 7 (32- or 64-bit)
- Mac OS X 10.5.8 or later (x86 only)
- Linux (tested on Ubuntu Linux, Lucid Lynx)
o GNU C Library (glibc) 2.7 or later is required.
o On Ubuntu Linux, version 8.04 or later is required.
o 64-bit distributions must be capable of running 32-bit applications. For information about how to add support for 32-bit applications, see the Ubuntu Linux installation notes.
Supported Development Environments
1) Download and install latest jdk version for your windows.
2) Download and install android-sdk for windows.
3) Download and install eclipse-java-indigo-SR1-win32-x86_64
4) Configure ADT (Advanced Development Toolkit) Plugin
Start Eclipse, and then Select Help à Install New Software….
Click Add, in the top-right corner. In the Add Repository dialog that appears, enter "ADT Plug-in" for the Name and the following URL for the Location:
The Android SDK requires disk storage for all of the components that you choose to install. The table below provides a rough idea of the disk-space requirements to expect, based on the components that you plan to use.
|Component type||Approximate size||Comments|
|SDK Tools||35 MB||Required|
|SDK Platform-tools||6 MB||Required|
|Android platform (each)||150 MB||At least one platform is required.|
|SDK Add-on (each)||100 MB||Optional|
|USB Driver for Windows||10 MB||Optional. For Windows only.|
|Samples (per platform)||10M||Optional|
|Offline documentation||250 MB||Optional|
Android vs. iOS
|Widgets||Yes||No, except in Notification Center|
|OS family||Linux||OS X, UNIX|
|Customizability||A lot. Can change almost anything.||Limited unless jailbroken|
|Initial release||September 23, 2008||July 29, 2007|
|Programmed in||C,C++,Java||C, C++, Objective-C|
|Easy media transfer||depends on model||with desktop application|
|Source model||Open Source||Closed, with open source components.|
|Open source||Kernel, UI, and some standard apps||The iOS kernel is not open source but is based on the open-source Darwin OS.|
|Call features supported||Auto-respond||Auto-respond, call-back reminder, do not disturb mode|
|Internet browsing||Google Chrome (or Android Browser on older versions; other browsers are available)||Mobile Safari (Other browsers are available)|
|Available on||Many phones and tablets, including Kindle Fire(modified android), LG, HTC, Samsung, Sony, Motorola, Nexus, and others.||iPod Touch, iPhone, iPad, Apple TV (2nd and 3rd generation)|
|Interface||Touch screen, Smartwatch||Touch screen|
|Market share||81% of smartphones, 3.7% of tablets in North America (as of Jan'13) and 44.4% of tablets in Japan (as of Jan'13). In the United States in Q1 2013 – 52.3% phones, 47.7% tablets.||12.9% of smartphones, 87% of tablets in North America (as of Jan'13) and 40.1% of tablets in Japan (as of Jan'13)|
|Device manufacturer||Google, LG, Samsung, HTC, Sony, ASUS, Motorola, and many more||Apple Inc|